in a real summer season. Seasonal efficiency measures the true energy efficiency of heating and cooling devices during a period of one year.Unlike older heating and cooling systems, seasonal efficiency tracks a system’s daily operations to include temperature fluctuations and standby periods.After one year, the seasonal efficiency data gives a more in-depth and reliable overview of a systems energy consumption. How to Calculate SEER Ratings A SEER rating is a measurement used to describe how efficiently an air conditioner or cooling system utilizes energy over the course of a cooling season. Full-load and part-load performance of heat pump equipment is discussed in detail in Section 13.2. (2) SEER/SCOP values are measured based on FprEN 14825:2011: Testing and rating at part load conditions and calculation of seasonal performance. Therefore, the low-temperature systems 40/30°C offer the maximum energy use since the working temperatures are always below the dew point. Welch, in Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps (Fifth Edition), 2016. Seasonal performance factor scope according to SEPEMO definitions. The EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) is superseding some of these earlier initiatives. In real systems there are a number of other sources of power demand that could be constituted to be part of the whole-system demand. Defining the exact meaning of this sort of metric is not as straightforward as it first seems, however (Gleeson and Lowe, 2013). Sam Kubba PH.D., LEED AP, in Handbook of Green Building Design and Construction (Second Edition), 2017. Ils sont calculés pour 4 points de fonctionnement. Basically, the relationship between SCOP and COP is the same as with SEER and EER. SPFH3 furthermore includes any electric heater packaged with the heat pump and SPFH4 includes all circulating pumps and supplementary heaters. Find the wattage of the required emergency standby diesel-generator set, provided the typical wattage values of Table P8.13.1 are used. If this test has not been performed, a default value of 0.9 should be applied. Higher is better when it comes to SEER. COP = Coefficient de performance, coefficient utilisé pour évaluer l'efficacité ou rendement d'un système de chauffage (pompe à chaleur) ou de refroidissement (climatisation). The formula of how to convert EER to SEER is: SEER = (1 × EER 100% + 42 × EER 75% + 45 × EER 50% + 12 × EER 250%)/100 On air conditioner’s specification sheets we usually get EER rating (many times without SEER rating). The variable speed controls for these fans attempt to keep the air moving at a comfortable velocity, minimizing cool drafts and maximizing electrical savings. The US DoE defined the formula to be used to calculate SEER values for residential air conditioning systems of less than 65,000 BTU/h (19 kW). The Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) value in heating New seasonal ratings The new seasonal ratings reflect a heat pump’s true energy consumption, based on its energy efficiency over an entire year. This … This Excel spreadsheet allows air conditioner companies to enter test values and calculate Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratios (SEER values) based on AS/NZS 3823.4:2014 Amendment 1 Air-cooled air conditioners and air-to-air heat pumps – Testing and calculating methods for seasonal performance factors. Figure 1.3. This is not useful for rating equipment but is more useful when making comparisons with other technologies or making realistic estimates of running costs or carbon emission savings. The energy performance requirements related to the seasonal performance SCOP/SEER with calculation methods very similar to those already existing in EN 14825. The electricity consumption for these modes is included in the calculation of the SCOP value as follows: where H signifies the number of hours in a year the HP is in the stated operating mode, and Eel is the energy consumption of the HP in this mode, which is an input parameter in the calculation. The higher the SEER rating the more efficient your AC unit is and the less energy it consumes. SEER is very similar to the “coefficient of performance” commonly used in thermodynamics, except COP is a unit-less parameter. This translates into five separate efficiency options, with model numbers usually keyed to the SEER numbers, so they are easy to recognize. Simply put, manufacturers use it to differentiate between less efficient equipment to the more efficient equipment they sell. Il est exprimé en BTU/Whr. COP measures how many times more efficient the heat pump is than electric resistance heat with an efficiency of 100%. It is becoming widely adopted as a criterion for chiller performance and details can be found on the Eurovent website. The higher the ratio, the more energy efficient the air conditioner is. The SEER is usually noticeably higher than the HSPF since defrosting is not needed and there usually is no need for expensive supplemental heat during conditions when air conditioning is used. The US government has mandated that any air conditioning system manufactured after 2005 have a minimum SEER of 13. Domestic refrigerators are energy labelled and performance labelling has been extended to household air-conditioners below 12 kW rated cooling output. Headquarter 1230 Higuera St. San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805 547 2050 This COP gives the electricity consumption needed to meet the heating demand at each temperature. This includes thermostat off mode, standby mode, crankcase heater mode and off mode. The metrics are SPFH1 through SPFH4 depending on which supplementary electrical demands are included. The SCOP (Seasonal Coefficient of Performance) takes into account annual operation with additional measurements at outdoor temperatures of +12, +7, +2, and –7°C. SEER is a mathematically determined ratio of the total cooling capacity during normal periods of operation (not to exceed 12 months) divided by the total electric energy input during the same time period. Therefore, the energy consumption of the HP is measured after the compressor has been turned off for a minimum of 10 min. Products are considered under ‘Lots’ or groups of similar products. The building has an air-conditioning unit (10 tons, SEER (, Exergy Analysis of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning, A heat pump's performance varies depending on the weather and the amount of supplementary heat required, so a more realistic efficiency measure can be obtained on a seasonal basis. 1.27. [SEER] (ang. Since 2013 the ErP directive set SEER and SCOP. (To convert SEER to COP, multiply by 0.293 or (1055/3600). It is an expression of a system’s total cooling capacity divided by the total energy input. 813/2013, by which the Directive is developed with regard to ecodesign requirements for fuel boiler space heaters and combination heaters [67] (mainly with regard to the minimum required seasonal energy efficiency ratio), require fossil fuel boilers commercialized in the coming years to be condensing, Fig. There are approximately 50,000 GHPs installed in the United States annually. Figure 1.27. G.F. Hundy, ... T.C. The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) value in cooling and the seasonal coefficient of performance (SCOP) or heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) values in heating reflect a HP’s true energy consumption. But even though the installation price of a geothermal system can be several times that of an air source system of the same heating and cooling capacity, the additional costs can be recouped in energy savings in 5–10 years. Some packaged heat pump equipment incorporates the ground loop and possibly heating circulation pumps; in other systems these pumps are installed elsewhere. The SCOP requirements found in this federal regulation are identical to the one found in ASHRAE 90.1-2010/2013. In most of the annual cooling and heating periods, an HP is operated under the indoor thermal load lower than its rated capacity; this situation is called partial load operation. Another approach is to derive a seasonal metric from measurements of complete systems over one or more seasons. Well, it … System life is estimated at 25 years for the inside components and 50+ years for the ground loop. If a COP has been found at a lower capacity, this same COP value can also be used. Why are COPs more than 1? For the calculation of SCOP according to EN 14825, the HP must be tested at a series of points (temperatures), corresponding to the temperatures in EN 14511. SCOP (Seasonal Coefficient of Performance) is a new average measurement that shows how effective the heat pump is on an annual basis. TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION (1) PACKAGED AIR CONDITIONER INDOOR MODEL PLA-M100EA 298H840W840D (mm) OUTDOOR MODEL PUHZ-P100YKA 981H1050W330D (mm) cooling Y heating Y The heating season Average (mandatory) Y The SEER for a unit varies depending on where it is located. The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) for the cooling cycle is such a measure. Outdoor Air Temperatures for Different Partial Cooling Loads. These ratio were calculated for only one measurement at full charge. Consequently, values of SPFH1 are closest to the manufacturers' EER values and SPFH4 values are somewhat lower. Plus précisément le SEER représente la performance globale d'un système pour une année climatique typique pour une région donnée. The calculated or measured partial load efficiency values are used when calculating the SCOP value. When it comes to whole-system performance, we would like to consider a range of operating conditions and use a metric that represents performance when the heat pump is installed and forms part of a heating and cooling system. Table 2.2. Nonetheless, as of now, the SCOP has still considered a very new methodology of measuring seasonal cooling and heating efficiency. See also. EER = Froid produit en BTUh / énergie consommée en Wh SEER = a (EER@25% load) + b (EER@50% load) + c (EER@75% load) + d (EER@100% load) where a,b,c,& d are the load profile weighting factors relevant to the proposed application. Another technology option is the Hybrid systems using several different geothermal resources, or a combination of a geothermal resource with outdoor air (i.e., a cooling tower). ........................................................... © Ibrahim Dincer, Marc A. Rosen, in Exergy (Second Edition), 2013. One approach to deriving a seasonal metric is to use a weighted mean of COP values measured at a few different operating conditions. It is a framework directive that obliges manufacturers of energy consuming products to reduce the energy consumption and sometimes also other negative environmental impacts occurring throughout the product life cycle for products that are within scope of the many separate ‘implementing directives’ under the framework. Source: Climate Heating and Cooling, Inc. Conventional ductwork is generally used to distribute heated or cooled air from the GHP throughout the building. The summer months, when the air conditioner is most frequently used, equal about 1,000 hours. Although this technology may be more expensive to install than traditional HVAC systems, geothermal systems will greatly reduce gas or electric bills through reduced energy, operation and maintenance costs, thus allowing for relatively short payback periods (Fig. A similar scheme for refrigeration compressors is operated by ASERCOM. So, 3 million divided by 300,000 gives a SEER of 10. Ioan Sarbu, Calin Sebarchievici, in Ground-Source Heat Pumps, 2016. The, Handbook of Green Building Design and Construction (Second Edition). Il est calculé pour une température intérieur unique mais pour une variation de température extérieure de 65 °F (18 °C) à 104 °F (40 °C), avec une durée de temps variable par pas de 5 °F (2.8 °C). The SCOP forms the basis for European minimum requirements and energy labelling for HPs. Rees, in Advances in Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems, 2016. Enhanced capital allowances (ECA) are available for the purchase of products that meet defined efficiency criteria and these are published by the Carbon Trust on the Energy Technology List (ETL). For this combination, climate category and temperature size, performance ranges are created, and for these ranges we will have an energy class, the minimum of which is A+. Seasonal efficiency indices indicates how an HP operates efficient over an entire cooling or heating season. Some reports estimate that heat pumps with scroll compressors provide 10–15°F (5.6–8.3°C) warmer air when in the heating mode, compared to existing heat pumps with piston compressors. Higher COPs equate to lower operating costs. The SEER compares the heat removed from a house or structure being cooled and the energy used by the heat pump, including fans. Seasonal energy efficiency ratio, the American definition and calculation of seasonal energy efficiency ratios; References The most efficient models, however, generally involve two-speed compressors systems and variable fans and increased heat exchange area, and thus cost significantly more. a useful tool enabling the calculation of condi-tions between ranges. EER = COP * 3.41, EER = Energy Efficiency Ratio, ratio utilisé pour évaluer le rendement d'un climatiseur. The scheme covers all industrial products. Testing by an accredited centre is required. Please contact your local Toshiba Speci-fication Manager to receive a copy of the latest SEER/SCOP calculation tool or call 0870 843 0333. SEER and SCOP CEN PrEN 14825:2009, version 113WG7 109 Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps, with electrical compressors, for space heating and cooling – Testing and rating at part load conditions and calculation 1 It is intended that these transitional methods will ultimately be replaced by harmonised standard(s). A more detailed method for converting SEER to EER uses this formula: EER = -0.02 × SEER² + 1.12 × SEER Note that this method is used for benchmark modeling only and is not appropriate for all climate conditions. In the longer term, they take into account temperature fluctuations and standby periods to give a clear and reliable indication of the typical energy efficiency over an entire heating or cooling season. EER = 1.12 * SEER - 0.02 * SEER2. The SCOP method can be used to calculate both fixed- and variable-speed compressors. SPFH2 additionally includes the ground loop circulating pump energy. Table 2.3. Let's say that your air conditioner uses 3,000 BTU/h and consumes 300 watts per hour. SCOP would give a much more realistic idea about how energy efficient an HVAC device is in practice; ie. SEER figures are then automatically calculated for three scenarios: To calculate the SEER, simply enter the quantity of each of the proposed systems to be used on the project into the 'QTY' column. The different system boundaries are indicated in Fig. ASHRAE Standard 90.1 uses the term integrated part-load value to report seasonal cooling efficiencies for both seasonal COPs and seasonal EERs (Btu/(Wh)), depending on the equipment capacity category. If a COP has been found by use of a test for a capacity within a maximum of 10% above the calculated demand, according to EN 14825 this COP value may be used for this point. These types of consumption are determined on the basis of a specific number of hours in each mode. Accordingly, some caution is required when interpreting manufacturers' data. The SCOP is a weighted average of COPs over a range of outside air conditions following a specific test method, according to European Standard EN 14825. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Humidification and Ventilation Management in Textile Industry, Impact of Poor Power Quality on Reliability, Relaying and Security, Power Quality in Power Systems and Electrical Machines (Second Edition), An emergency standby generating set for a commercial building is to be sized.