Infographics About Kurds and Kurdish Issues. Before the region was conquered by Arab Muslims in the 7th century AD, numerous Kurdish tribes and small Kurdish empires flourished.Islamic rule over the Kurdish homeland by the Ottoman Empire came to end after WWI, but the Iraqi Kurds, who had lived between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, were segmented into different countries a… 23) – whereas he refers to Adiabene as. Hillman and A.J Legge, Published 2000, Oxford University Press, A Dictionary of Scripture Geography, p 57, by John Miles, 486 pages, Published 1846, Original from Harvard University. By 1927, the Barzani clan had become vocal supporters of Kurdish rights in Iraq. 77 likes. [29] The Assyrians ruled the region from the 21st century BC. Iraq – Iraqi Kurdistan: Italian archaeologists discover a 20,000 year old lake. [63], Iraqi Kurds played an important role in the Iraq War. Under pressure from the Iraqi government and the British, the most influential leader of the clan, Mustafa Barzani was forced into exile in Iran in 1945. Gali Zinta (Zinta Valley) near Akre town, Duhok Governorate, in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq DSC 3715.jpg 6,016 × 4,000; 13.29 MB Gate of Amedi in Kurdistan 01.jpg 6,016 × 4,000; 14.88 MB Gate of Amedi in Kurdistan 03.jpg 6,016 × 4,000; 14.76 MB Exporters/Importers trading with the Kurdistan region need to comply with the requirements of Kurdistan’s Consignment Based Conformity Assessment (CBCA) service which mandates that shipments require a Certificate of Conformity in order to clear … Iraq was widely condemned by the international community, but was never seriously punished for oppressive measures, including the use of chemical weapons against the Kurds,[55] which resulted in thousands of deaths. One of the major Assyrian cities in the area, Erbil (Arba-Ilu), was noted for its distinctive cult of Ishtar,[28] and the city was called "the Lady of Ishtar" by its Assyrian inhabitants. Summer and early autumn are virtually dry, and spring is fairly tepid. The Ba'ath government started a campaign to end the Kurdish insurrection, which stalled in 1969. After the military coup by Abdul Karim Qasim in 1958, Mustafa Barzani was invited by Qasim to return from exile, where he was greeted with a hero's welcome. By early 1960, it became apparent that Qasim would not follow through with his promise of regional autonomy. United Nations Security Council Resolution 688 gave birth to a safe haven following international concern for the safety of Kurdish refugees. Nel Kurdistan iracheno, oltre al Tigri, scorrono altri fiumi importanti quali il Grande Zab, il Piccolo Zab, il Sirvan e il Diyala; anche qui sono presenti sistemi di dighe. Marc. Kurdystan (arab. The Great Zab and the Little Zab flow east-west in the region. The first wave of the plan was carried out in 1982 when 8,000 Barzanis were arrested and their remains were returned to Kurdistan in 2008. Arab settlement programs reached their peak during the late 1970s, in line with depopulation efforts of the Ba'athist regime. During World War II, the power vacuum in Iraq was exploited by the Kurdish tribes and under the leadership of Mustafa Barzani a rebellion broke out in the north, effectively gaining control of Kurdish areas until 1945, when Iraqis could once again subdue the Kurds with British support. This can be partly attributed to the internal power struggle in Baghdad and also tensions with Iran. [60] This led to internecine and intra-Kurdish conflict and warfare between 1994 and 1996. The region was to be ruled by the two principal Kurdish parties; the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK). A People Without A Home. Processo di democratizzazione del Rojava siriano e del Kurdistan iracheno. The suffix -stan (Persian: ـستان‎, translit. Others surrendered en masse and the rebellion ended after a few days. di Andrea Beccaro. Select from premium Kurdistan Iracheno of the highest quality. In April 2012, the president of Iraq's semi-autonomous northern Kurdish region demanded that officials agree to their demands or face the prospect of secession from Baghdad by September 2012. [7], The exact origins of the name Kurd are unclear. However, defiant to the British, in 1922 Shaikh Mahmoud declared a Kurdish Kingdom with himself as king. In the face of growing Kurdish dissent, as well as Barzani's personal power, Qasim began to incite the Barzanis historical enemies, the Baradost and Zebari tribes, which led to intertribal warfare throughout 1960 and early 1961. In the following years, Baghdad government overcame its internal divisions and concluded a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union in April 1972 and ended its isolation within the Arab world. [5][6] Much of the geographical and cultural region of Iraqi Kurdistan is part of the Kurdistan Region (KRI), an autonomous region recognized by the Constitution of Iraq. Kurdistan is a geo-cultural region wherein the Kurds have historically formed a prominent majority population, and Kurdish culture, language, and national identity have historically been based. [75] On March 23, Barzani officially declared that Iraqi Kurdistan will hold the referendum some time "before October" of that year. stân) is Persian for region. It is one of the four parts of Kurdistan, which also includes parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northern Syria (Western Kurdistan), and northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan). During World War I, the British and French divided Western Asia in the Sykes-Picot Agreement. Meanwhile, in June 1961, the KDP issued a detailed ultimatum to Qasim outlining Kurdish grievances and demanded rectification. Due to Qasim's profound distrust of the Iraqi Army, which he purposely failed to adequately arm (in fact, Qasim implemented a policy of ammunition rationing), Qasim's government was not able to subdue the insurrection. [67] On 16 November 2012 a military clash between the Iraqi forces and the Peshmerga resulted in one person killed. (2013). This melting pot of ethnicities, languages, religions and political factions is due to the large area that the Kurds inhabit. It took two years for the British to bring Kurdish areas into submission, while Shaikh Mahmud found refuge in an unknown location. This campaign failed in May 1966, when Barzani forces thoroughly defeated the Iraqi Army at the Battle of Mount Handrin, near Rawandiz. [51], The campaigns took place during the Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, being largely motivated by the Kurdish–Arab ethnic and political conflict. "[69] After previously opposing the independence for Iraqi Kurdistan, Turkey later gave signs that it could recognize an independent Kurdish state. During the 2014 Northern Iraq offensive, Iraqi Kurdistan seized the city of Kirkuk and the surrounding area, as well as most of the disputed territories in Northern Iraq. N. Maxoudian, "Early Armenia as an Empire: The Career of Tigranes III, 95–55 BC", Village on the Euphrates: From Foraging to Farming at Abu Hureyra, by A.M.T Moore, G.C. Iraqi Kurdistan sees snowfall occasionally in the winter, and frost is common. [32][33][34][35] Later, the region was incorporated by the Romans as the Roman Assyria province but shortly retaken by the Sassanids who established the Satrap of Assuristan (Sassanid Assyria) in it until the Arab Islamic conquest. Se Maometto non va alla montagna, la montagna va a Maometto! This was not received well in Baghdad, and as a result, Qasim began to prepare for a military offensive against the north to return government control of the region. Most areas in the region fall within the Mediterranean climate zone (Csa), with areas to the southwest being semi-arid (BSh). Winters, however, are dramatically cooler than the rest of Iraq, with highs averaging between 9 °C (48 °F) and 11 °C (52 °F) and with lows hovering around 3 °C (37 °F) in some areas and freezing in others, dipping to −2 °C (28 °F) and 0 °C (32 °F) on average. Parts of the Ottoman Empire on the Arabian Peninsula were eventually taken over by Saudi Arabia and Yemen. On the other hand, Kurds remained dependent on the Iranian military support and could do little to strengthen their forces. Assyrian kings are attested from the 23rd century BC according to the Assyrian King List, and Assyrian city-states such as Ashur and Ekallatum started appearing in the region from the mid-21st century BC. The region was host to the Jarmo culture circa 7000 BC. The Treaty of Sèvres (which did not enter into force), and the Treaty of Lausanne which superseded it, led to the advent of modern Western Asia and the modern Republic of Turkey. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Ba'athist Arabization campaigns in North Iraq, forcibly displaced and culturally Arabized, United Nations Security Council Resolution 688, 2017 Kurdistan Region independence referendum, "عێراقی دوای سەددام و چارەنووسی باشووری کوردستان". Al-Sheikhly, O.F. The western and southern parts of Iraqi Kurdistan are not as mountainous as the east. Conflicte și controverse. In his excursus on the Sasanian Empire, he describes Assyria in such a way that there is no mistaking he is talking about lower Mesopotamia (Amm. Unfortunately, the Kurds called these mountains home, and many Kurds were forced to relocate away from the borders. The one-party rule which had dominated Iraq however meant that the new assembly was an overall component of Baghdad's central government; the Kurdish authority was installed by Baghdad and no multi-party system had been inaugurated in Iraqi Kurdistan, and as such the local population enjoyed no particular democratic freedom denied to the rest of the country. Most of the rain falls in winter and spring, and is usually heavy. Iraq informed Tehran that it was willing to satisfy other Iranian demands in return for an end to its aid to the Kurds. 1925. aastal väisas Põhja-Iraaki Rahvasteliidu mõjukas uurimiskomisjon, mida juhatas kindral Johan Laidoner. Relations became further strained by the formation of a new command center (Tigris Operation Command) for Iraqi forces to operate in a disputed area over which both Baghdad and the Kurdistan Regional Government claim jurisdiction. 2016-11-28. The Kurdish populations are recognized in both Iraq and Iran, as the Kurds in northern Iraq have successfully established their own autonomous government (the Kurdistan Regional Government), and the Kurds in Iran primarily inhabit the Iranian province of Kordestan. Kurdistan (/ ˌ k ɜːr d ɪ ˈ s t æ n, ˈ s t ɑː n /; Kurdish: Kurdistan ,کوردستان ‎ [ˌkʊɾdɪˈstɑːn] (); lit. Student Transportation Activity, October 2017, Domiz camp, Dahuk, Kurdistan Region - Iraq. 6. [78] This triggered a military operation in which the Iraqi government retook control of Kirkuk and surrounding areas,[79] and forced the KRG to annul the referendum.[80]. Certificate of Conformity for Exports to the Kurdistan Region. [69][70] On 11 July 2014, KRG forces seized control of the Bai Hassan and Kirkuk oilfields, prompting a condemnation from Baghdad and a threat of "dire consequences" if the oilfields were not relinquished back to Iraq's control. It was not until September 10, when an Iraqi army column was ambushed by a group of Kurds, that the Kurdish revolt truly began. Contribute your suggestions in the form below! [15][16], Due to its latitude and altitude, Iraqi Kurdistan is cooler and much wetter than the rest of Iraq. Kurdistan iracheno, il racconto di Maria (Emergency) dai falegnami di Sulaimaniya - OnuItalia Onuitalia - 2019-07-04 14:25 14. In 1930, following the announcement of the admission of Iraq to the League of Nations, Shaikh Mahmoud started a third uprising which was suppressed with British air and ground forces.[40][41]. Due to the summers being less extreme, thousands of tourists from the hotter parts of Iraq come to visit the region in that season.[17]. Viaggio nel Kurdistan iracheno. Between 612 and 605 BC, the Assyrian empire fell and it passed to the neo-Babylonians and later became part of the Athura Satrap within the Achaemenian Empire from 539 to 332 BC, where it was known as Athura, the Achaemenid name for Assyria. Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan (Kurdish: باشووری کوردستان ,Başûrê Kurdistanê ‎,) is the part of Kurdistan in northern Iraq.It is one of the four parts of Kurdistan, which also includes parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northern Syria (Western Kurdistan), and northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan). Kurdistan on ajalooline kurdide asuala Lääne-Aasias. Between the 16th and 17th century the area nowadays known as Iraqi Kurdistan, (formerly ruled by three principalities of Baban, Badinan, and Soran) was continuously passed back and forth between archrivals the Safavids and the Ottomans, until the Ottomans managed to decisively seize power in the region starting from the mid 17th century through the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39) and the resulting Treaty of Zuhab. Marc. [8][9] One of the ancient names of Kurdistan is Corduene.[10][11]. Tensions marked a high stage in late February 2008 when Turkey unilaterally took military action against the PKK which at times uses the northern Iraq region as a base for militant activities against Turkey. During this period, the Kurds were subjected to a double embargo: one imposed by the United Nations on Iraq and one imposed by Saddam Hussein on their region. The region was conquered by Arab Muslims in the mid 7th century AD as the invading forces conquered the Sassanian Empire, while Assyria was dissolved as a geo-political entity (although Assyrians remain in the area to this day), and the area made part of the Muslim Arab Rashidun, Umayyad, and later the Abbasid Caliphates, before becoming part of various Iranian, Turkic, and Mongol emirates. Analisi qualitativa e comparata della democrazia in Rojava e nel Kurdistan iracheno. Barzani agreed to the ceasefire and fired the radicals from the party. Instead, it is rolling hills and plains vegetated by sclerophyll scrubland. The severe economic hardships caused by the embargoes fueled tensions between the two dominant political parties, the KDP and the PUK, over control of trade routes and resources. With mediation by Algerian President Houari Boumediene, Iran and Iraq reached a comprehensive settlement in March 1975 known as the Algiers Pact. [14], Bird species include, the see-see partridge, Menetries's warbler, western jackdaw, Red-billed chough, hooded crow, European nightjar, rufous-tailed scrub robin, masked shrike and the pale rockfinch. Did we miss something? Based on weather reports collected during 2006–2015. PUK leader Jalal Talabani was elected President of the new Iraqi administration, while KDP leader Masoud Barzani became President of the Kurdistan Regional Government. During the Iran–Iraq War, the Iraqi government again implemented anti-Kurdish policies and a de facto civil war broke out. At this battle, it was said that the Kurds slaughtered an entire brigade. Find the perfect Kurdistan Iracheno stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Turkish Kurdistan, 1920 (as proposed by the Treaty of Sevres) Kurdistan, 1945 (Conference of San Francisco) Kurdistan, 1945 (Conference of San Francisco) Kurdistan, 1945 (Conference of San Francisco) Division of Kurdistan after the Civil War, 2003; Kurdistan Regional Government Map, 2005; Kurdish Regions of Iraq: Political Status in 2010 Moreover, the Soviet Union pressured the Iraqis to come to terms with Barzani. By uploading your photo and comments you're agreeing to our terms of service. Regional autonomy had originally been established in 1970 with the creation of the Kurdish Autonomous Region following the agreement of an Autonomy Accord between the government of Iraq and leaders of the Iraqi Kurdish community. In November 1963, after considerable infighting amongst the civilian and military wings of the Ba'athists, they were ousted by Abdul Salam Arif in a coup. Mosul is 49 miles from Erbil, so the actual climate in Erbil can vary a bit. [76] On April 2, 2017, the two governing parties released a joint statement announcing they would form a joint committee to prepare for a referendum to be held on 25 September. Then, after another failed offensive, Arif declared a ceasefire in February 1964 which provoked a split among Kurdish urban radicals on one hand and Peshmerga (Freedom fighters) forces led by Barzani on the other. The U.S. and the Coalition established a No Fly Zone over a large part of northern Iraq (see Operation Provide Comfort),[57] however, it left out Sulaymaniyah, Kirkuk and other important Kurdish populated regions. [52] In 1978 and 1979, 600 Kurdish villages were burned down and around 200,000 Kurds were deported to the other parts of the country. It recognized both the Kurdistan Region and all laws passed by the KRG since 1992. In 1978 and 1979, 600 Kurdish villages were burned down and around 200,000 Kurds were deported to the other parts of the country. Please review before submitting if you have questions. Consignment Based Conformity Assessment (CBCA) service for exports to Kurdistan. L'origine della questione curda e l'applicabilità del diritto all'autodeterminazione. xxIII. The history of the the Kurdish people in Iraqi Kurdistan dates back to ancient times. The campaign also included Arabization of Kirkuk, a program to drive Kurds and other ethnic groups out of the oil-rich city and replace them with Arab settlers from central and southern Iraq.[56]. Among other cities in the climate table below, Soran, Shaqlawa and Halabja also experience lows which average below 0 °C (32 °F) in winter. The region was known as Assyria, and was the center of various Assyrian empires (particularly during the periods 1813–1754 BC, 1385–1076 BC and the Neo Assyrian Empire of 911–608 BC. [59] Relations between the PUK and the KDP started to become dangerously strained from September 1993 after rounds of amalgamations occurred between parties. 4-set-2017 - Esplora la bacheca "Erbil Citadel" di su Pinterest. The second and more extensive and widespread wave began from March 29, 1987 until April 23, 1989, when the Iraqi army under the command of Saddam Hussein & Ali Hassan al-Majid carried out a genocidal campaign against the Kurds, characterized by the following human rights violations: The widespread use of chemical weapons, the wholesale destruction of some 2,000 villages, and slaughter of around 50,000 rural Kurds, by the most conservative estimates. There are also several smaller lakes, such as Darbandikhan Lake and Duhok Lake. The literal translation for Kurdistan is "Region of Kurds.”, "Kurdistan" was also formerly spelled Curdistan. A peace plan was announced in March 1970 and provided for broader Kurdish autonomy. Since the downfall of the regime of Saddam Hussein, the relations between the KRG and Turkey have been in flux. Media in category "Maps of Iraqi Kurdistan" The following 55 files are in this category, out of 55 total. Dal campo profughi di Erbil alla prima linea del fronte a pochi kilometri dal Califfato, i nostri reporter raccontano l'avanzata dell'Isis nel Kurdistan… Reportage dal Kurdistan iracheno on Vimeo Join