Hardest hit have been members of the Hindu community who have been robbed of their lands and shops, systematically slaughtered, and in some places, painted with yellow patches marked 'H'. , On the brink of defeat in around 14 December 1971, the media reports indicated that the Pakistan Army soldiers, the local East Pakistan Police they controlled, razakars and the Shanti Committee carried out systematic killings of professionals such as physicians, teachers, and other intellectuals, as part of a pogrom against the Bengali Hindu minorities who constituted the majority of urban educated intellectuals.  Nixon feared that an Indian invasion of Pakistan would mean total Soviet domination of the region, and that it would seriously undermine the global position of the United States and the regional position of America's new tactical ally, China. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and … Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. , According to authors Kenton Worcester, Sally Bermanzohn and Mark Ungar, Bengalis themselves killed about 150,000 non-Bengalis living in the East.  In 1971, a strong wave of Indian-supported Bangladeshi nationalism emerged in the East. On 13 June 1971, an article in the UK's Sunday Times exposed the brutality of Pakistan's suppression of the Bangladeshi uprising. Violence and the systematic targeted killings of unarmed multi-ethic Pakistanis living in the East started. , The news media's mood in Pakistan had also turned increasingly jingoistic and militaristic against East Pakistan and India when the Pakistani news media reported the complexity of the situation in the East, though the reactions from Pakistan's news media pundits were mixed. :1–2, The War Enquiry Commission later exposed the fact that for the Pakistan Army and Pakistan Marines, the arms and training of marines, soldiers and officers were needed at every level, and every level of command. It is a well-known fact, or I can assume a lot of people are aware, that in 1971, the US government was not in favor of a liberated Bangladesh. Why would Pakistan attack Bangladesh? Tuttavia quando la sconfitta pakistana apparve certa, Nixon inviò la portaerei USS Enterprise nella baia del Bengala come minaccia atomica nei confronti dell'India. A. K. Niazi reportedly commented on Tikka's actions and noted: "On the night between 25/26 March 1971, [General] Tikka struck. :107–108, The PAF deployed its F-6s mainly on defensive combat air patrol missions over their own bases, leaving the PAF unable to conduct effective offensive operations. , As many Arab countries were allied with both the United States and Pakistan, it was easy for Kissinger to encourage them to participate. No matter if you already are an expat in Bangladesh or still finishing your preparations for your relocation back home in Pakistan, InterNations Bangladesh offers everything you are looking for: our trusted network is the most popular international platform for expats and global minds from all over the world. Following is a list of the recipients of the Indian award Param Vir Chakra, Bangladeshi award Bir Sreshtho and the Pakistani award Nishan-E-Haider: Recipients of the Param Vir Chakra:, Recipients of the Bir Sreshtho:, Recipients of the Nishan-E-Haider:, On 25 July 2011, Bangladesh Swadhinata Sammanona, the Bangladesh Freedom Honour, was posthumously conferred on former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.. I bengalesi stanno combattendo il nemico con grande coraggio per un Bangladesh indipendente. The biggest setback was disintegration of Pakistan with emergence of Bangladesh. Tre Corpi indiani invasero il Pakistan orientale, sostenuti dalle brigate del Mukti Bahini e da truppe irregolari. , The war stripped Pakistan of more than half of its population, and with nearly one-third of its army in captivity, clearly established India's military and political dominance of the subcontinent. Bangladesh got independence in 1971 from Pakistan but soon after independence both countries established good relations. :xxx The League's election success caused many West Pakistanis to fear that it would allow the Bengalis to draft the constitution based on the six-points and liberalism. His orders to his troops were: "I want the land, not the people..."." Che Allah ci aiuti nella nostra lotta per la libertà. , In April, the exiled Awami League leaders formed a government-in-exile in Baidyanathtala of Meherpur.  The PAF avoided making contacts with the Indian Navy after the latter raided the port of Karachi twice, but the PAF did retaliate by bombing Okha harbour, destroying the fuel tanks used by the boats that had attacked. Niazi, the Cdr. The Bangladesh Force, namely the Mukti Bahini, consisting of Niyomito Bahini (Regular Force) and Oniyomito Bahini (Guerilla Force), was formed under the retired colonel Mohammad Ataul Gani Osmani. :xxx Demoralized and finding itself unable to control the situation, the Yahya administration fell when President Yahya Khan turned over his presidency to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who was sworn in on 20 December 1971 as President with the control of the military.. " Farman forcefully denied writing that comment, and laid all responsibility on Tikka, while testifying at the War Enquiry Commission in 1974.  The perceived Indian overstay revived Bangladeshi anxieties of Hindu control.  In announcing the Pakistani surrender, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared in the Indian Parliament: Dacca is now the free capital of a free country. Bush, introduced a resolution in the UN Security Council calling for a cease-fire and the withdrawal of armed forces by India and Pakistan. :80[verification needed] When Pakistan called for unilateral ceasefire and the surrender was announced, the Shah of Iran hastily responded by preparing the Iranian military to come up with contingency plans to forcefully invade Pakistan and annex its Balochistan province into its side of Balochistan, by any means necessary, before anybody else did it. The eastern command had laid down arms after losing only 1,300 men in battle.  West Pakistan, now just Pakistan, secured the release of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman from the Headquarter Prison and allowed him to return to Dacca.  The naval attack involving the Soviet-built Osa missile boats sank the Pakistan Navy's destroyer PNS Khaibar and minesweeper PNS Muhafiz while PNS Shah Jahan was also badly damaged.  According to one Pakistani scholar, Tariq Ali, Pakistan lost half its navy in the war.  By the first week of December, the conservative print media outlets in the country had published jihad related materials to boost the recruitment in the military. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. In West Pakistan 1,200 military deaths had accompanied lackluster military performance. Successivamente, in memoria delle vittime del 1952, l'UNESCO ha dichiarato il 21 febbraio come la Giornata internazionale delle lingue locali. Spanish translation of Pakistan - a state at war with itself by Lal Khan (May 15, 2007) ... la crisis en la judicatura y ahora el comienzo de la guerra civil en Karachi y en otras partes. They were reinforced by Mirages from an unidentified Middle Eastern ally (whose identity remains unknown). In his book The 1971 Indo-Pak War: A Soldier's Narrative, Pakistan Army's Major General Hakeem Arshad Qureshi, a veteran of this conflict, noted: We must accept the fact that, as a people, we had also contributed to the bifurcation of our own country. Malgrado la condanna delle Nazioni Unite per le violazioni dei diritti umani, esse fallirono nel trovare una soluzione politica alla controversia prima dello scoppio della guerra.  According to Manekshaw's own personal account, he refused, citing the onset of monsoon season in East Pakistan and also the fact that the army tanks were being refitted. Operation Searchlight, followed by Operation Barisal, attempted to kill the intellectual elite of the east. La guerra di liberazione del Bangladesh (bengali Muktijuddho) fu un conflitto armato che vide schierati Pakistan dell'est ed India contro Pakistan dell'ovest.  Over the next five months, India released more than 90,000 war prisoners, with Lieutenant-General A.A.K. :229, The sinking of INS Khukri was followed by another Indian attack on Karachi port on the night of 8/9 December 1971 under the codename Python. , Nel Pakistan occidentale le rivendicazioni linguistiche furono viste come una rivolta particolarista contro gli interessi dello Stato pakistano e contro l'ideologia di base del Pakistan: la "teoria delle due Nazioni", i politici occidentali consideravano la lingua Urdu come un prodotto della cultura islamica indiana, come affermato da Ayub Khan nel 1967, "I bengalesi orientali... sono ancora influenzati considerevolmente dalla cultura Hindu.  The war also exposed the shortcomings of Pakistan's declared strategic doctrine that the "defence of East Pakistan lay in West Pakistan". "Securitization, social identity, and democratic security: Nixon, India, and the ties that bind. Hasan, Women of Pakistan Apologize for War Crimes, 1996, Sheikh Mujib wanted a confederation: US papers, by Anwar Iqbal, Dawn, 7 July 2005, Page containing copies of the surrender documents, A website dedicated to Liberation war of Bangladesh, Giornata internazionale delle lingue locali, Butcher Of Bengal | Gen. Tikka Khan, 87; 'Butcher of Bengal' Led Pakistani Army - Los Angeles Times, Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century, Bangladesh sets up war crimes court - Central & South Asia - Al Jazeera English, Demons of December — Road from East Pakistan to Bangladesh, The Tilt: the U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971, Bangladesh Liberation War Picture Gallery, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guerra_di_liberazione_bengalese&oldid=117419250, Template Webarchive - collegamenti all'Internet Archive, Voci non biografiche con codici di controllo di autorità, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo, Indipendenza del Pakistan orientale con il nome di Bangladesh. Anthony Mascarenhas in Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood estimates that during the entire nine-month liberation struggle more than 1 million Bengalis may have died at the hands of the Pakistan Army.  Pakistani naval sources reported that about 720 Pakistani sailors were killed or wounded, and Pakistan lost reserve fuel and many commercial ships, thus crippling the Pakistan Navy's further involvement in the conflict. El país Bangladesh existe desde hace menos de 50 años.En 1971, consiguió su independencia de Pakistán, un país con el que no hace frontera. L'11 luglio venne istituito il Comando delle Forze del Bangladesh, con il generale Muhammad Ataul Ghani Osmani come comandante in capo, il tenente colonnello Abdur Rabb come capo di stato maggiore, il Capitano A. K. Khandker Vice Capo di Stato Maggiore e il maggiore A. R. Chowdhury come Assistente Capo di Stato Maggiore. L'attività del Mukti Bahini crebbe rapidamente. At least, the White House was actively against the idea of a dismembered Pakistan. Non appena le forze occidentali lanciarono l'operazione, Sheikh Mujib, com'era chiamato dalla sua gente, firmò una dichiarazione ufficiale: Oggi il Bangladesh è un paese sovrano e indipendente. L'esercito del Pakistan e milizie estremiste religiose (i fondamentalisti di Razakars, Al-Badr e Al-Shams), commisero sistematicamente atrocità verso la popolazione, alla ricerca del genocidio della comunità bengalese. Il suo leader, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, diede vita al movimento Sei punti, sostenitore di una decisa autonomia della provincia del Pakistan orientale. El historiador musulmán Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah estimó que la conquista de la zona que hoy forma La India, Pakistán y Bangladesh trajo consigo unos 400 millones de muertos. ":133–135 This crash programme reached parity[clarification needed] in 1977 when the first weapon design was successfully achieved. However, 70% of Bangladeshis held a positive view of India: while 50% of Bangladeshis held a positive view of Pakistan. :164 According to Jussi Hanhimäki, Finnish historian of terrorism, the Bengali terrorism in the East is a somewhat "forgotten episode of annals of terrorism. Relações entre a União Soviética e Bangladesh. :73 By November 1971, the Soviet ambassador to Pakistan Alexei Rodionov directed a secretive message (Rodionov message) that ultimately warned Pakistan that "it will be embarking on a suicidal course if it escalates tensions in the subcontinent. ", Manekshaw, SHFJ. Diede rassicurazioni all'India sulle possibili contromisure da intraprendere in caso di coinvolgimento nel conflitto degli Stati Uniti o della Cina.  Paquistán … The Bangladesh Liberation War , also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. :82, In an address to the nation on radio that same evening, Prime Minister Gandhi held that the air strikes were a declaration of war against India and the Indian Air Force (IAF) responded with initial air strikes the same night. The Tilt: The U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971. Western Naval Command) VAdm N. Krishnan(Cdr. The list of foreign friends of Bangladesh has since been extended to 568 people.  In addition to these three countries, an unidentified Middle Eastern ally also supplied Pakistan with Mirage IIIs. Il leader bengalese chiamò, con un messaggio radio, il popolo alla resistenza. [General] Tikka let loose everything at his disposal as if raiding an enemy, not dealing with his own misguided and misled people. But India was alert, Pakistani pilots were inept, and Yahya's strategy of scattering his thin air force over a dozen air fields was a bust! Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. La risposta pakistana consistette nel paracadutare due divisioni di fanteria ed in una contestuale riorganizzazione delle proprie forze oltre che nell'organizzazione delle forze paramilitari dei Razakar, degli Al-Badrs e degli Al-Shams (che erano in gran parte membri della Lega Musulmana, il partito di governo, e di altri gruppi islamici), oltre che di altri bengalesi che si opponevano all'indipendenza, come i musulmani Bihar stabilitisi nel Bengala nel corso della divisione dell'India britannica. The two countries share a number of attributes. Gli Stati Uniti chiesero, il 12 dicembre, una nuova convocazione del Consiglio di Sicurezza, tuttavia la guerra finì prima che la convocazione si concretizzasse in una risoluzione ed in misure che non fossero meramente accademiche. , As a result of the war, East Pakistan became an independent country, Bangladesh, as the world's fourth most populous Muslim state on 16 December 1971. It eventually made some quick and initial gains, including the capture of around 15,010 km2 (5,795 sq mi) of Pakistani territory; this land gained by India in Azad Kashmir, Punjab and Sindh sectors was later ceded in the Simla Agreement of 1972, as a gesture of goodwill Casualties inflicted to Pakistan Army's I Corps, II Corps, and Pakistan Marines' Punjab detachment were very high, and many soldiers and marines perished due to lack of operational planning and lack of coordination within the marine-army formations against Indian Army's Southern and Western Commands. It includes 257 Indians, 88 Americans, 41 Pakistanis, 39 Britons, 9 Russians, 18 Nepalese, 16 French and 18 Japanese. ", After the war, the United States accepted the new balance of power and recognised India as a dominant player in South Asia; the US immediately engaged in strengthening bilateral relations between the two countries in the successive years. , These pre-emptive strikes, known as Operation Chengiz Khan, were inspired by the success of Israeli Operation Focus in the Arab–Israeli Six-Day War. Officially, East Pakistan had earlier called for its secession from Pakistan on 26 March 1971. :156 Contrary to the 1965 war, which had emphasised set-piece battles and slow advances, this time the strategy adopted was a swift, three-pronged assault of nine infantry divisions with attached armoured units and close air support that rapidly converged on Dacca, the capital of East Pakistan. , However, the Indo-Soviet treaty did not mean a total commitment to every Indian position, even though the Soviet Union had accepted the Indian position during the conflict, according to author Robert Jackson. Unlike the Israeli attack on Arab airbases in 1967, which involved a large number of Israeli planes, Pakistan flew no more than 50 planes to India. Il messaggio venne raccolto da una nave giapponese nel golfo del Bengala e ritrasmesso da Radio Australia e in seguito dalla BBC. :127 In 1976, the Supplementary Report was submitted, which was the comprehensive report compiled together with the First Report; this report was also marked as classified. Eastern Naval Command) RAdm S. H. Sarma(Flag Officer Commanding Eastern Fleet) ACM Pratap C. Lal(Chief of Air Staff) Rameshwar Kao(Director of RAW), Indian Armed Forces: 825,000 – 860,000, Pakistan Armed Forces: 350,000 – 365,000, India2,500–3,843 killed9,851–12,000 injured, Pakistan9,000 killed 25,000 wounded In spite of the magnitude of the victory, India was surprisingly restrained in its reaction.  On 16 December 1971, Pakistan ultimately called for unilateral ceasefire and surrendered its entire four-tier military to the Indian Army– hence ending the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971.  As a result, Prime Minister Gandhi was criticised by a section in India for believing Bhutto's "sweet talk and false vows", while the other section claimed the agreement to be successful, for not letting it to fall into "Versailles Syndrome” trap. La guerriglia nel Bangladesh operò per causare il maggior numero possibile di vittime pakistane attraverso incursioni e imboscate, colpendo le attività economiche e le centrali elettriche, le linee ferroviarie, i depositi di stoccaggio e le reti di comunicazione. They typically accuse Pakistani reporters (such as Anthony Mascarenhas) who reported on the genocide of being "enemy agents". The war confirmed the independence of Bangladesh. Bangladesh–India border, Bay of Bengal, Indo-Bangladesh enclaves, India–Pakistan border, Line of Control, Arabian Sea: Point in time: 16 December 1971: Start … Nel luglio 1971 l'ex-Beatle George Harrison pubblicò in favore delle popolazioni colpite dalla guerra il singolo di beneficenza Bangla Desh, il cui ricavato sarà devoluto a un fondo dell'UNICEF. Il potere era sempre rimasto saldamente nelle mani dell'establishment occidentale, sebbene la maggioranza della popolazione vivesse ad est. The Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the People's Republic of Bangladesh. After all they both fought a war and got separated. La fase principale dell'Operazione Searchlight era conclusa già a metà maggio. La nostra lotta è per la nostra indipendenza. Niazi, the Cdr. Sull'onda delle proteste di piazza, il 7 dicembre si tennero le prime elezioni generali da quando il Pakistan, nel 1947, aveva ottenuto l'indipendenza. Bina D'Costa states that the War Commission was aware of the military's brutality in East Pakistan, but "chose to downplay the scale of the atrocities committed. Choudhury, G.W., "Bangladesh: Why It Happened.". Gli Stati Uniti ritardarono il riconoscimento per alcuni mesi, fino all'8 aprile 1972. Le Forze del Bangladesh attaccarono diversi avamposti di frontiera. Il secondo partito, con 81 seggi, risultò il Partito Popolare Pakistano di Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto che subito si dichiarò contrario ad un governo dominato dalla componente orientale. , After the resignations of Admiral S.M. Desde la división de la India británica en 1947, en una nación multi religiosa, la India y una islámica, Pakistán, aunque en esta, solo se compartía la religión, en el resto de los aspectos culturales y sociales había una grieta insalvable. Pakistan had lost half of her navy, third of army and a quarter of air force besides millions of casualties. Hamoodur Rehman Commission (HRC) Report of Inquiry into the 1971 War (Vanguard Books Lahore, 513). :107 Sporadic raids by the IAF continued against PAF forward air bases in Pakistan until the end of the war, and interdiction and close-support operations were maintained.  Ciò a dimostrazione della tensione fra i vari gruppi visto che l'Urdu era parlato ad occidente solo dai Muhajir e ad oriente solo dai Bihari, la maggioranza della popolazione occidentale era di lingua Punjabi, mentre la maggioranza di quella orientale era di lingua bengalese. , At the end of the war, PAF pilots made successful escapes from East Pakistan to neighbouring Burma; many PAF personnel had already left the East for Burma on their own before Dacca was overrun by the Indian military in December 1971. Dovremo lottare fino all'ultimo per liberare la nostra patria.  R.J. Rummel cites estimates ranging from one to three million people killed. On 28 March 2012, President of Bangladesh Zillur Rahman and the Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina conferred Bangladesh Liberation War Honour and Friends of Liberation War Honour to 75 people, six organisations, Mitra Bahini and the people of India at a special ceremony at the Bangabandhu International Conference Centre, Dhaka. :596, The victory also defined India's much broader role in foreign politics, as many countries in the world had come to realise – including the United States – that the balance of power had shifted to India as a major player in the region. Quest’ultima, poi entrò in guerra … Esto es sólo por nombrar algunos de los pocos acontecimientos del torbellino que se está produciendo en Pakistán.  In the post-war era, Pakistan struggled to absorb the lessons learned from the military interventions in the democratic system and the impact of the Pakistani military's failure was grave and long-lasting. I pakistani cercarono di stroncare il movimento, tuttavia un crescente numero di soldati di origine bengalese iniziò a disertare in favore dell'esercito clandestino; tali forze si fusero col Mukti Bahini ricevendo forniture militari dall'India. Malgrado fosse maggiormente popolato, il Pakistan orientale riceveva una frazione del budget dello Stato inferiore a quella della regione occidentale. Explore more on Bangladesh Pakistan. Government Documents 1971, Eyewitness Accounts: Genocide in Bangladesh.  Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on 27 March 1971 expressed full support of her government for the independence struggle of the people of East Pakistan, and concluded that instead of taking in millions of refugees, it was economical to go to war against Pakistan. Indo-Pakistani War of 1971; Part of the Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts and Bangladesh Liberation War: First Row: Lt-Gen. A.A.K. Esercito e milizie paramilitari si macchiarono sistematicamente di atrocità volte al genocidio della popolazione bengalese. :107 More than 80 percent of IAF sorties were close-support and interdiction and about 45 IAF aircraft were lost. L'Agenzia di intelligence indiana (RAW) giocò un ruolo cruciale nel fornire il supporto logistico al Mukti Bahini durante le fasi iniziali della guerra. :7 Despite the left wing government of Sirimavo Bandaranaike following a neutral non-aligned foreign policy Sri Lanka decided to help Pakistan in the war. In Pakistan, the teenagers and youngsters (born in the 80s and 90s) don't know much about Bangladesh, apart from the fact that earlier it was a part of Pakistan, then due to our own bad policies and India's help, they separated.  The Indian government opened the East Pakistan–India border to allow the Bengali refugees to find safe shelter; the governments of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura established refugee camps along the border.  Around 1900 personnel were lost, while 1413 servicemen were captured by Indian forces in Dacca. , From the geopolitical point of view, the war ended in the breaking-up of the unity of Pakistan from being the largest Muslim country in the world to its politico-economic and military collapse that resulted from a direct foreign intervention by India in 1971. Oltre 93.000 soldati pakistani si arresero alle forze indiane, il più grande numero di prigionieri dalla seconda guerra mondiale. L'identità negata:la guerra di liberazione del Bangladesh come disfacimento dell'ideale artificioso di Pakistan unito Apart from soldiers, it was estimated that 15,000 Bengali civilians were also made prisoners of war. , In 2009, the issue of establishing the International Crimes Tribunal began to take public support. , The Pakistani people were not mentally prepared to accept the magnitude of this kind of defeat, as the state electronic media had been projecting imaginary victories; however, the privately owned electronic news media coverage in East Pakistan had reported the complexity of the situation. "Lecture at Defence Services Staff College on Leadership and Discipline" (Appendix V) in Singh (2002). Il Pakistan orientale giudicava negativamente l'ossessione di quello Occidentale per il Kashmir, e il generale Yahya Khan, succeduto al generale Ayyub Khan alla guida del paese nel 1969, dovette affrontare gravi difficoltà sul piano interno e internazionale. Politici e società civile del Pakistan orientale annunciarono la dichiarazione di indipendenza del Bangladesh.  The Delhi Agreement witnessed the largest mass population transfer since the Partition of India in 1947.  China was also critical of the Government of East Pakistan, led by its Governor Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan, which used ruthless measures to deal with the Bengali opposition, and did not endorse the Pakistani position on that issue. Pakistan recognized Bangladesh in 1974 after pressure from across the Muslim world. , Unlike the 1965 war, the Navy NHQ staffers and commanders of the Pakistan Navy knew very well that the Navy was ill-prepared for the naval conflict with India. ", Warner, Geoffrey. La guerra diede origine alla secessione del Pakistan dell'est, che divenne il Bangladesh indipendente. Statistics show that Pakistan’s export to Bangladesh in 2014 have been of $684 million and Pakistan import value remained $54.8 million.  Pakistan lost half its population and a significant portion of its economy, and suffered setbacks to its geopolitical role in South Asia. ; Desde 2017, Cox’s Bazar se ha convertido en el lugar que acoge el campo de refugiados más grande del mundo. , In 2010, the Awami League's government decided to set up a tribunal to prosecute the people involved in alleged war crimes and those who collaborated with Pakistan. Gli Stati Uniti furono tra le ultime nazioni a concedere il riconoscimento del Bangladesh. Lasting just 13 days, it is one of the shortest wars in history. Its findings were met with favourable reviews from the political leaders of West Pakistan, with the exception of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the chairman of the Pakistan Peoples Party. , The Indian government repeatedly appealed to the international community for assistance, but failed to elicit any response, despite the External Affairs minister Swaran Singh meeting foreign ministers of other countries.  F-86s from Saudi Arabia helped camouflage the extent of PAF losses, and some Libyan F-5s were reportedly deployed to Sargodha AFB, perhaps as a potential training unit to prepare Pakistani pilots for an influx of more F-5s from Saudi Arabia. "Trying to catch the Indian Air Force napping, Yahya Khan, launched a Pakistani version of Israel's 1967 air blitz in hopes that one rapid attack would cripple India's far superior air power. It resulted in the independence of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. It resulted in the independence of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. , When the war started, China reproached India for its direct involvement and infiltration in East Pakistan.  Bihari representatives in June 1971 claimed a higher figure of 500,000 killed by Bengalis.  These expanded to massive retaliatory air strikes the next morning. El 17 de Diciembre de 1971 finalizaba la "Guerra de Bangladesh". Si crede che azioni militari cinesi contro l'India per proteggere il Pakistan occidentale avrebbero causato azioni sovietiche contro la stessa Cina. :686–687 The Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman stressed his political position by presenting his Six Points and endorsing the Bengalis' right to govern.  The imbalance in air losses was explained by the IAF's considerably higher sortie rate and its emphasis on ground-attack missions.  By the end of September 1971, a propaganda campaign, possibly orchestrated by elements within the Government of Pakistan, resulted in stickers endorsing "Crush India" becoming a standard feature on the rear windows of vehicles in Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Lahore; this soon spread to the rest of West Pakistan. Alcune autorità del Bangladesh hanno affermato che ben 3 milioni di persone sono state brutalmente uccise, e che 400.000 donne sono state atrocemente torturate durante la guerra. , The PAF played a more limited role in the operations.  The Government of Pakistan used the "Bihari massacre" to justify its deployment of the military in East Pakistan on 25 March, when it initiated its military crackdown.